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What if you could shave a hundred thousand or more off the typical asking price of the home you want? What if you could do this in a central neighbourhood, in a more spacious unit, perhaps one with a view?

It's possible. The only catch? You won't own the land your home is sitting on.

There are pockets of land throughout Metro Vancouver - many in prime locations - that have been rented out to developers for a set amount of time, usually between 50 and 99 years. The developers or "leasehold landlords" build on and make improvements to the land, then sell or rent out portions of the buildings.

This lease land is often city-owned, but the federal government, First Nations bands, Universities and even private individuals also own and rent out land. The types of developments vary, from condos to townhouses to detached houses and duplexes to mobile or even float homes. But all share one thing in common: unlike a traditional freehold unit, you own your share of the structure and any common property, but only rent the land beneath it.

Leasehold units are usually more attractively priced, more spacious, and in better neighbourhoods than their freehold counterparts. A quick search on REW.ca revealed these two 1-bedroom condos in the West End.

Freeehold condo in Vancouver's West EndLeasehold condo in Vancouver's West EndThat's a difference of $160,000 between two comparable 600 sq. ft. units, one freehold and one leasehold.

What are you buying with leasehold?

Basically you are buying a "right of exclusive possession" until the end of the lease period, or until you sell that right to another person.

Often, leases are prepaid by the developer and incorporated in the selling price. If the lease is not prepaid, you will have to fork over rent for the land on top of any strata fees, taxes, and mortgage payments you're already paying.

However, you're often buying into a better lifestyle (at the cost of a better investment). And in some areas, you are buying the right to live somewhere you otherwise couldn't, such as the UBC endowment land with its pristine forests and majestic ocean views.

What you won't get is a share of the rising land value. In fact, rising land values can cost you.

Rent hikes

The lease agreement, called a "ground lease," sets out the terms and conditions upon which the developer has leased the property. If lease payments haven't been prepaid, the agreement will usually allow for annual lease payments to be raised periodically to reflect current land valuesometimes dramatically.

In 2006, some False Creek condo owners saw their annual lease payments skyrocket by up to 700% when the City adjusted for the then-current land value. Subject to arbitration, the lease payments were later lowered by several hundred dollars per month because the recent sale of the Olympic Village site had dramatically skewed the land value.

When the lease ends

If the lease on your unit is soon coming to an end, you won't be able to say with any certainty whether it will be renewed, and if so, at what cost once rising land values have been factored in.

And if the lease is not renewed, most lease agreements give the landowner the right to buy out the buildings at fair market value, then do with the land what they wisheven if that means tearing down existing buildings, rezoning, or selling for redevelopment. You might have to move.

Uncertainties

It's uncertainties like these that make some leasehold properties less than ideal investments. They don't increase in value as quickly as a freehold. They generally take longer to sell. And as the lease counts down to expiry, the property value can actually be negatively affected.

Banks don't like the uncertainty surrounding certain leaseholds either. That's why most lenders will ask for a hefty 25-30 per cent down payment. Lenders also use the expiry date of the lease as a guideline for loan amortization periods, lending only for five years fewer than the remaining lease. So if a lease expires in 20 years, for example, you would only be able to get a 15-year amortization period for that loan. Reverse mortgages for retirees can be next to impossible to get for most leasehold properties.

Do the advantages outweigh the risks?

That depends. If lifestyle factors like being close to work or living in a beautiful area are most important, it could be the right choice for you. Look for long leases - 25 years or longer - and preferably for a length of time that far exceeds the time you plan to live there. Prepaid 99-year leases are the most secure, but they also cost almost as much as freehold.

And, most important, find a Realtor and mortgage broker who have experience in leasehold properties.

Where are they?

So where can you find leasehold gems? Start by doing an Advanced Search on REW.ca in your preferred neighbourhood with the keyword "leasehold." Here are a few areas to get you started:

Burnaby

  • SFU UniverCity: a growing, sustainable urban community with sweeping views consisting of multifamily townhouses and condos. Prepaid 99-year lease means that prices are closer to those of newer freehold units.

Chilliwack

  • Cultus Lake is a municipality lease from the provincial government.
  • Residential leased land is predominantly First Nations. Chilliwack and District Real Estate Board president Steve Lerigny says, "We're not only surrounded by leased land, but interlaced with it. You'll see pockets of it within regular subdivisions. And the different bands handle their leases differently."

Coquitlam / Langley / Surrey

  • Non-prepaid lease parks for mobile / manufactured homes

North Vancouver

  • Roche Point near Dollarton / Deep Cove. A gated development owned by Tsleil-Waututh First Nation.
  • Lynnmour marina / float homes

Richmond

  • South Arm condos
  • Granville Richmond condos
  • Bridgeport float homes
  • Brighouse condos
  • West Cambie Richmond float homes

Vancouver

  • City-owned False Creek South neighbourhood between the Cambie and Granville bridges with condos and townhouses nestled beside Burrard Inlet. Note that some leases start expiring as soon as 2036.
  • City-owned Champlain Heights near Boundary and East 54 th Ave. in East Vancouver, featuring spacious townhouses and community amenities in a park-like setting.
  • University-owned UBC endowment lands with surrounding forest and commanding views. Prepaid 99-year leases with prices mostly on par with similar freehold properties.
  • Musqueam-owned area close to Pacific Spirit Park, UBC and shopping districts. Mix of prepaid and non-prepaid. At the time of writing, a 5-bedroom house in this area was priced at $598,000 with an annual lease payment of $7980 per year.
  • City-owned West End apartments and condos, many with ocean views, near the heart of downtown Vancouver.
  • Dotted throughout the city, including in Kitsilano, Fairview Slopes, Mt. Pleasant East / West

West Vancouver

  • Park Royal area: City-owned and Squamish-Nation-owned land featuring everything from condos to the Capilano Mobile Home Park, an adult-oriented retirement community tucked away beside the Capilano River.
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Home Ownership Types in BC

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Home Ownership Types in BC

While there are many different types of home ownership in Canada I thought it would be worthwhile to review the four most common: Freehold Ownership, Strata title, Leasehold and Co-operative Ownership. Here is a quick summary of each type of ownership:

Freehold Ownership

This type of ownership is likely still the preferred type of ownership for most. Many of us grew up thinking about a bungalow with white picket fence or perhaps something more modern with a great pool in the back – either way, we envisioned a building with yard around. You can simply define freehold ownership as owning the building and grounds it rests upon. As the most common type of home ownership in Canada, it offers the most freedom of choice, from building design to yard work, whatever you can imagine you can create; at least that is, within zoning, bylaw and permit limitations of the city to which you live. Homeowners are responsible for the maintenance of the building interior, exterior and yard including its costs.

Want a little less responsibility? Perhaps the next type of homeownership is for you.

Strata Title

Strata ownership, particularly in Metro Vancouver, is increasingly common. With strata ownership you have exclusive use and ownership of a specific unit/lot which is part of a larger building/lot. Homeowners, under strata ownership laws, share ownership of common property within the property limits, this may include, but not limited to parking, building entrances and exits, hallways, amenity rooms and equipment. However the homeowner retains full ownership of all interior elements of the unit to which they live. The costs associated to common property is shared by all owners. This type of ownership is often found in townhouse communities or multi-family dwellings although detached (single family) homes can also be stratified. Unlike freehold ownership, strata ownership is often subject to more rules and regulations set forth by the strata council formed by a selected group of owners within the property.

Leasehold

In Metro Vancouver leasehold ownership is most commonly found on university lands such as UBC and SFU as well as First Nation reserve land. Leasehold interest in land gives you the exclusive use of the home/unit for a period of time so that you live in the home similarly to strata title or freehold but with a time limit. Original leasehold ownership is often set at 99 years but if you choose to sell your home in five years the next owner will have leasehold interest now for 94 years and so on. The closer you get to the end of the lease the more risk is involved depending on what the owner intends to do with the land/homes (ie: either resell a leasehold interest, redevelop, etc.).

Co-operative Ownership

In many ways, co-operative ownership is much like a strata ownership but instead of owning the interior elements of the property you live in, you own shares of the entire building or complex. Those that live within a Co-operative ownership (also known as a co-op) pay for maintenance and repairs of the property and building through monthly fees. Owners are also subject to rules and regulations of the co-op board which is created in the same manner as a strata council by selecting owners within the co-op to form a council and manage the building.

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